Showing posts with label pressure. Show all posts
Showing posts with label pressure. Show all posts

Saturday, January 19, 2019

How do you measure up? →Cavity Treatment

pressure pump injector mortuary magic

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The Pressure Pump Injector!

helping you work your mortuary magic!

*Update* 1/20/19
Direct replacement assembly-
Pump to build pressure-
Trigger to release fluid-

Thursday, January 10, 2019

→ What You can Learn from Gravity Injection - Must Read

No this post is not about drinking games or parties, it is actually about embalming. However, it seems within the funeral industry the college kids and hardcore adults might know more about it than some embalmers do today. Can anyone guess what the pressure of the alcohol is in this video, or better yet what about the rate of flow?

If you were conducting yourself within the industry with a license and have not heard someone say, "rate of flow swells the body while embalming" that would surprise me. Sure, turning the rate of flow valve to much or too quickly can lead to swelling rather quickly. Performing this action does in fact increase the measurable flowing pressure, then the internal pressure, and the result is swelling.
In regards to swelling, consider this example. If the rate of flow is equal to the rate of drainage, how can there be swelling? Better question, what is the pressure? No we aren't going to talk shell embalming or that increasing drainage is not possible even though it is- Siphonbalm. Simple answer is there can't be and so it must not be true. After just a little consideration one cannot make the rate of flow swelling claim reasonably or intelligently. The constant in the swelling occurrence is the increase in internal pressure, which can be measured with our Frankembalm machine.

But was there even such a thing as rate of flow while embalmers were putting beer bongs, I mean funnels, in the air using gravity to inject? The answer is yes. There was a rate of flow as fluid would flow due to the force of gravity. This is still true. Without force, which we measure as pressure, you do not have flow. Said another way, pressure creates flow. It is that simple.  Consider how you or anyone would gravity inject. Mild elevation as you get started. With mild elevation you will expect and get a mild rate of flow. Fluid will take the path of least resistance and be unable to pass areas of greater resistance. The elevated height will determine what is a path of great resistance or least resistance. The speed of drainage will begin to remove pooled blood from the body, this will lessen the pressure demand to distribute fluid. As rate of drainage becomes steady, increase the elevation and the job is done. Tubing size is the same as with all embalming machines, cannula size is the same, typical elevation at ten feet high would create approximately five pounds of pressure- has this ever lead to severe swelling? Not that I have seen.

How can we use this knowledge to improve our present skills? Is there a benefit to high flowing embalming? High flow results in de-saturation of tissue. In addition to distribution benefits, Jaundice cases, edema cases or even standard cases can greatly benefit of high flow embalming. Flushing bilirubin out is key for achieving a well preserved "un-green" jaundice case. Drawing moisture into the vascular system for removal will improve preservation of edematous tissue. Finally, drawing any water from any case will delay decomposition.

To make you a bit more comfortable injecting with a 'high rate of flow' with centrifugal embalming machines, here is a quick how to which probably doesn't require you to buy anything.
Make two incisions, one at the right clavicle site other at the left bra strap site.
From the left bra strap site incise and insert forceps in the subclavian vein and left jugular vein. 
From the site at the right clavicle incise and insert forceps into the right jugular vein.
Inject south via the carotid artery with pressure setting below 1 lb.
Remember what we know about gravity feed, as fluid flows and returns drainage turn the 'rate of flow' by 1/5.
As drainage continues to increases, continue opening the valve until it is completely open.
From that point raise the pressure carefully until you have achieved the desired results, you will not be disappointed.  

Whats your pressure number?

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

→ Embalming Tissue Gas- Training Video

Embalming tissue gas training
Embalming Tissue Gas -Training Video from Your Mortuary Magic Store on Vimeo.

Twas the night after Christmas,
and all through the night,
there was bacteria growing causing great fright,
they call it tissue gas and for good reason,
we share our training for tis' the season,

"Embalm the Nightmare like a Dream"

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

→ How the Embalming Machine Broke

Maybe your wondering how your machine broke-
Maybe you just wanted to learn more about your equipment-
Maybe your just curious about what we had to say-

Enjoy the show!

Tuesday, December 4, 2018

→ Embalming and Pressure Video

Embalming and Pressure from Your Mortuary Magic Store on Vimeo.

This video is called Pressure and Embalming
We are covering: Pressure measured in the embalming machine- Pressure measured within the vascular system-and more!

Tuesday, November 27, 2018

→ Diffusion- Chemical Science & Embalming

To be up front, do NOT consider this to be the greatest source of information about chemistry.  In fact, failing in a chemistry class among students a couple years older than I was the beginning of my chemistry education.  Let this instead be the most practical explanation of "diffusion" and why it matters to embalmers.

Diffusion, at a basic understanding, can be described as a process where molecules are evenly dispersed over time. This transport will happen from an area of high concentration to low concentration. Gravity and edema is a fitting example any embalmer can understand. Consider gravity and its affect on water retained in the body. In this example we can expect fluid to be retained in the legs.  Logically the greatest volume or concentration of fluid would be at the lowest parts of the legs. If we would elevate the legs into the air, fluid would move from a high concentration area to a lower concentration area.  To be more specific, fluid would move from the legs towards the abdomen. In science we describe this process as diffusion.

There are many factors which can influence diffusion.  Understanding these factors assists the embalmer to apply the most effective techniques.  For instance, temperature is a way to influence diffusion.  It is also a reason many experts suggest using warm water within the fluid solution. On the micro level, molecules when cold move the slowest, while molecules hot move the fastest. The movement or lack there of aides and inhibits the transport of molecules which occurs during the diffusion process. This is part of the challenge which many embalmers face during extreme refrigerated cases.

Several other factors contribute to our complete understanding of diffusion. Permeability of cell walls can be drastically affected by polar ions such as calcium, chloride or salts.  Talking permeability, smaller molecules will have an easier time passing as compared to larger molecules. Also, thicker walls are harder to pass while thinner walls are easier to pass. Considering all of this, we wouldn't be able to pass anything without force.  We measure force as pressure. Pressure is a quantitative measurement of force which can be taken at any site or location. As in our example, legs elevated, we are using gravity to generate negative pressure in the low fluid concentration area ( abdomen ) and generate positive pressure in the high fluid concentration area ( legs ). Similarly under injection we are using the pump motor to force fluid and generate postive pressure against the vascular wall. As the pressure increases, the speed at which fluid ( high concentration ) diffuses into the low concentration areas ( the tissues ) increases.

Do you agree having covered temperature, pressure and permeability as it relates to diffusion benefits embalmers? In my opinion, the preservation of not only the deceased but also the art and science of embalming depends on it. Diffusion is what embalmers today count on to saturate and restore tissue for viewing purposes.

Monday, November 26, 2018

→ What to Inject while you're Injecting: Low-High

Embalming Low Pressure High Flow from Your Mortuary Magic Store on Vimeo.

This is the third installment of the 'What to Inject while you're Injecting Series'
Low Pressure / High Flow settings
Do you already know what happens?

The series will cover embalming with the various settings of your 'Centrifugal' style embalming machine!

Sunday, November 25, 2018

→ Embalming Methodology- Old School

For our purposes we are calling this embalming technique, "Old School".  For those embalmers who know it, the name is out of respect for those still using it.  With respect for the the veterans of the profession, some young embalmers have learned why this old trick should never be forgotten.

The method is simple really, this is one of my personal favorites for apparent difficult cases (cases you'd expect to raise more than one vessel). Make a selection of an artery.  Be sure NOT to rupture any vessels in the process. If one should break, take care to use a locking forcep to restrict drainage. Incise the artery and insert a cannula, my preference is to utilize a Director Cannula to obtain access to the aorta.  This is helpful to reduce the possibility of post embalming swelling.

Estimate the deceased total body weight and take note.  Begin to inject without drainage the total body weight in ounces (you most likely will not need to inject the entire solution). For this method to work well, your pressure setting must be high (at least greater than 20) and it is wise to heavily restrict your rate of flow (trickle treat folks).  Take notice of the superficial vessels as an indication of fluid distribution.  Continue injection so long as swelling does not occur and until adequate firmness is achieved.  Massage during and after injection and apply warm water over the deceased (this accelerates the firming effects, heat provides ATP for the RXN).  Adequate and thorough aspiration following injection is very important as this will serve as the only means to remove blood from the body.

For best results consider handling these cases with a higher index solution or even waterless. For waterless cases, consider using the Pressure Pump Injector. This hand pump permits high pressure injection with ease-one bottle at a time-with trigger control.

This high pressure style embalming method we call "Old School" more than makes up for its distribution limitations with exceptional diffusion (high to low-low to high concentration). Embalming text supports heavily drainage being overated, we won't agree entirely.  We acknowledge the importance of drainage to achieve a lifelike appearance.  With that being said "Old School" remains as a tried and tested approach every embalmer can count on. 

Sunday, November 18, 2018

→ What to Inject while you're Injecting: High-Low

This is the first installment of the 'What to Inject while you're Injecting Series'
High Pressure / Low Flow settings
Do you already know what happens?

The series will cover embalming with the various settings of your 'Centrifugal' style embalming machine!

Tuesday, November 13, 2018

→ What to Inject while you're Injecting: Low-Low

This is the first installment of the 'What to Inject while you're Injecting Series'
Low Pressure / Low Flow settings
Do you already know what happens?

The series will cover embalming with the various settings of your 'Centrifugal' style embalming machine!

Saturday, November 10, 2018

→ Centrifugal Style Embalming Pumps

Centrifugal Style Embalming Pumps from Your Mortuary Magic Store on Vimeo.

Need to fix your embalming machine?
Want to learn more about it?
Maybe you just want to be better at what you do.

This video is just for you- and yeah I know I say 'Centrifugal' wrong! I will correct it in my next video!

Friday, November 2, 2018

→ New Video Ad- Pressure Pump Injector

Originally designed to revolutionize gravity feed cavity treatment-what was discovered was much more.  Undiluted pre-injections, hypodermics, high pressure power that puts machines to shame and even water-less cases-the pressure pump injector changes the game.  Screw on a standard 16 oz fluid bottle and get to work.  Intended for use with Tygon Tubing- 3/8 ID , 5/8 OD, 1/8 Wall.

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

→ Human Pressure Cooker - Physical Science & Embalming

The abdominal evomo has made its way into our reading content. That stinks! For those of you who do not know what this is—the abdominal evomo refers to belly gas. First and foremost, if you haven’t read about what to do with an air pressure system, please refer back to our previous article.
For those that have read, let us get down to where it comes from and why it’s growing. The Clostridium Perfringens bacteria is present in approximately 80% of food poisoning deaths. Oddly enough, keeping food clean is a real challenge in our world, and when we age our body has a difficult time fighting things off. When we die from gas build-up or food poisoning, the death will mimic a heart attack. If there is a history of heart disease in the family (pretty much a guarantee, as “cardiopulmonary arrest” is the most commonly used immediate cause of death among physicians), there might be a doctor in the house willing to sign off that this death was heart related. However, do not be fooled. The presence of Clostridium generally goes hand-in-hand with fecal matter within our intestines. The bacteria is common enough that upon death, its presence will double every five minutes. Coincidentally, upon our death the body enters a state known as algor mortis, which refers to our temperature rising for a short time following death. Heat, as we know in chemical reactions, supplies energy and increases the number of reactions. In simple terms, if we heat fecal matter, we will produce more gas than if we left it alone. If you thought it wasn’t going to get worse, well, get ready. As the gas becomes trapped within the abdomen, forming a abdominal evomo, the air or gas compresses and pressurizes. Within our current understanding of chemistry, pressurized matter can reduce the energy needed for reaction. This can be best understood by the cold boiling process. To be put simply, if you pressurize fluid enough it can be brought to a boil without even becoming hot. As applied to our example, gas can be produced more and more rapidly every second.
As this process continues, the migration of this bacteria into the vascular system becomes more real. Once inside the vascular system, the bacteria will eat the sugar and fats, producing more and more gas and odor. Every step of the way, there will be a barrier of vapor lock left in its wake until it reaches the brain. If the bacteria arrives at the brain, we have a true case of embalmer’s nightmare. Due to the sugary and fatty tissue of the brain, the bacteria will produce large volumes of gas which will distort the facial tissue of the deceased, making it near impossible to restore. So with understanding this process and how it happens, it serves us well to remember to never allow the abdomen to rise higher than the chest. Read on for the rest.
-The Mortuary Scientist

→ Displacement - Physical Science & Embalming

Flowing fluid may travel fast or slow, it can be in large vessels or small vessels, or it can be in some vessels but not others. Due to the complexity of the vascular system, its beauty, for one, it is easier to disregard all this knowledge and continue as operated. If this information makes your head hurt as much as mine, try and remember the old phrase, “No pain no gain!”
As common hand pumps, syringes, machine pumps, and even gravity feeds are provided to the embalmer, please accept that they do not aid the embalmer very well to calculate displacement. The embalmer is left to calculate this all on his or her own, and it is done usually from memory and frame of reference. Displacement is the measure of volume over time. It is not a complicated concept for us to understand; like miles per hour, so, ounces per minute. All of the above mentioned instruments used to inject or displace fluid have a force that can be calculated. Some of the above have the ability to restrict or regulate flow as well. It should be noted that when we regulate or restrict flow, we conversely influence or affect pressure. Yet when we measure displacement, it remains constant until we adjust one of the previous two variables: pressure or flow, if available. This is why perhaps our most significant frame of reference as we embalm is not the dials, numbers, and switches, but the displacement. We can calculate this visually with our imagination, yet however well this might work for us, we can do better using a flowmeter. As we connect a flowmeter to an embalming machine, we can better understand how adjusting these variables can affect the displacement of fluid from the machine. From our machine, pump settings as “high pressure with very restricted flow” can yield a displacement value the same as “low pressure with moderate rate of flow.” So what is the difference, you might ask? Sorry to disappoint you, that is not covered yet.
To answer the question, there isn’t much of a difference in either of these examples. Both methods rely on pressurizing the arterial system slowly. The pressurized arterial system next begins to dilate the smaller vessels, and so on and so forth. It is important to move slowly at the beginning stages of embalming, for reasons best known to the vascular system itself. Factors such as time of death and refrigeration, to name a few, will lead to pooled blood throughout the arterial system. Pushing the pooled blood deeper into smaller vessels will cause distribution issues for the embalmer. The goal of the embalmer initially would be to distribute the fluid well, and next to pressurize all of the vascular pathways that have been opened. See our former chapter about why fast moving fluid will aid the embalmer in distributing fluid.
The embalmer’s ability to learn more about Physical sciences as it relates to embalming can prove as useful a tool as an aneurysm hook. Holding the vascular system in high regard and understanding how fluid will or will not move within it will aid the embalmer during challenging cases where there are multiple pressure systems being encountered, from air, to fluid within the abdomen, and everything else.
-The Mortuary Scientist

→ Pre-injection - Physical Science & Embalming

Wait a minute, this is supposed to be about Physical embalming—pre-injections are chemicals! We together have made some serious strides thus far, so thank you for reading. You did read this right, and it is important to support data and claims as we progress, so excuse me if this seems as though we have digressed. We haven’t, yet.
Undoubtedly, pre-injections have certainly proven themselves valid to those who have taken the time to see the effect they have prior to arterial embalming. Consider what they are. We could just ask the chemical company, couldn’t we? They break up and help push clots, is what I am told. Yet, I’ve never seen it dissolve a clot or some pooled blood. Would you agree that maybe we should stick to what we can touch and see right in front of us? Most pre-injection fluids are slippery as ever, they are generally thicker than water or arterial chemical, and they have color. Let us together consider what something slippery might do inside the vascular system. We have already established that restricted drainage will slow fluid movement within the vascular system, causing pressure to increase. How would high internal pressure benefit the embalmer? High internal pressure of the large vessels will lead to dilation of additional smaller vessel pathways. Not enough pressure within the large vessels will not permit the passage of fluid to the smaller pathways.
So what is the negative to high internal pressure within the body? If the pressure in the large and small vessels gets too high, the result could be devastating for families. Swollen tissue or severely dehydrated tissue could be the result. So how does this challenge of the embalmer relate to pre-injections, or pre-injection fluid for that matter? Read on.
Please visualize fluid traveling through a large diameter pipe to a smaller diameter pipe. From the small end of the pipe, fluid is able to escape through a very tiny hole. Consider what happens as we flow fluid from the large diameter pipe at a constant rate of gallons per second through the pipe and out of the small diameter end. Fluid entering the large diameter and leaving would be the exact same volume. So visually, we would see a large stream entering traveling apparently slowly, as compared to a tiny stream exiting traveling apparently much faster. This is not the same system we have while we are performing arterial embalming. The variable we would need to change and consider is the pipe. We have two very different vessel types: veins and arteries. For our purposes, in this example visualize the pipe being an artery. This artery is only capable of holding so much pressure before it has a negative consequence to the appearance of features. How would a slippery viscous fluid help the situation? Well, in short, it reduces the drag or friction within the vessel or pipe. Friction or drag would slow fluid down, while lubrication would help to keep speed. More simply, pre-injection fluid permits a higher pressure system within the vessels as compared to without. Furthermore, we talked about the Venturi effect and how it is enacted upon cross sections in the vessels. Well, increasing the density or viscosity of fluid will, by the Venturi formula, increase the suction or vacuum being enacted on pooled blood or clots.
The comment often heard is, “Wait a minute, I embalm with high pressure all the time! It isn’t dangerous, and the body looks great.” Interested to know what can be said about this? Well, we are pretty close to tackling this topic from an engineering perspective, so please read on.
-The Mortuary Scientist

→ Distribution - Physical Science & Embalming

There are a seemingly endless amount of combinations of mixtures and solutions an embalmer might create per case. For our purposes of discussing fluid dynamics, please consider water being mixed with your favorite arterial solution. This fluid is now capable of entering the human body and preserving it for a finite amount of time.
What is most significant about our solution is that it must make contact with the area we intend to preserve. For it to affect and preserve tissue, it must be able to reach, saturate, and act upon the tissue. Perhaps the first greatest adversity for the embalmer is reaching the area. Secondly, has enough fluid arrived to saturate the tissue without distortion? And lastly, has enough time elapsed before the fluid leaving for it to reach its full preservation potential?
So how does it get there? Embalmers commonly advise on their methodology: “high pressure and low rate of flow,” “low pressure and low rate of flow”—it seems there might be enough combinations to make someone’s head explode. Let’s for now agree to revisit those concepts at a later time, but remember it is very significant.
For our purposes now, we will be using the “Mortuary Magic Hand”. We can restrict flow enough that it slowly enters the hand. Once we see fluid draining, if we stop drainage then we are now pressurizing the tissue in the hand. As per our flow restriction, as time goes on the tissues of the hand will become more and more saturated in the areas we have distributed fluid. This fluid will not necessarily reach all of the areas of the hand we might have intended. If we were to start and stop drainage, we might see it distribute more thoroughly. If you already know why this is, great job. If you don’t, please consider or try and visualize why.
Consider another method commonly employed by embalmers: concurrent drainage. This time, we will inject the hand and not restrict drainage in any way. In fact, while fluid begins to escape freely, we will decrease the restriction of injection flow. This will increase the displacement of fluid into the hand, where it will enter at a rate faster than it can escape. This method will also saturate the tissue, but you might notice that distribution of fluid will happen on its own.
In our next chapter, we will begin to address why this is.
-The Mortuary Scientist