Showing posts with label distribution. Show all posts
Showing posts with label distribution. Show all posts

Thursday, January 10, 2019

→ What You can Learn from Gravity Injection - Must Read


No this post is not about drinking games or parties, it is actually about embalming. However, it seems within the funeral industry the college kids and hardcore adults might know more about it than some embalmers do today. Can anyone guess what the pressure of the alcohol is in this video, or better yet what about the rate of flow?

If you were conducting yourself within the industry with a license and have not heard someone say, "rate of flow swells the body while embalming" that would surprise me. Sure, turning the rate of flow valve to much or too quickly can lead to swelling rather quickly. Performing this action does in fact increase the measurable flowing pressure, then the internal pressure, and the result is swelling.
In regards to swelling, consider this example. If the rate of flow is equal to the rate of drainage, how can there be swelling? Better question, what is the pressure? No we aren't going to talk shell embalming or that increasing drainage is not possible even though it is- Siphonbalm. Simple answer is there can't be and so it must not be true. After just a little consideration one cannot make the rate of flow swelling claim reasonably or intelligently. The constant in the swelling occurrence is the increase in internal pressure, which can be measured with our Frankembalm machine.

But was there even such a thing as rate of flow while embalmers were putting beer bongs, I mean funnels, in the air using gravity to inject? The answer is yes. There was a rate of flow as fluid would flow due to the force of gravity. This is still true. Without force, which we measure as pressure, you do not have flow. Said another way, pressure creates flow. It is that simple.  Consider how you or anyone would gravity inject. Mild elevation as you get started. With mild elevation you will expect and get a mild rate of flow. Fluid will take the path of least resistance and be unable to pass areas of greater resistance. The elevated height will determine what is a path of great resistance or least resistance. The speed of drainage will begin to remove pooled blood from the body, this will lessen the pressure demand to distribute fluid. As rate of drainage becomes steady, increase the elevation and the job is done. Tubing size is the same as with all embalming machines, cannula size is the same, typical elevation at ten feet high would create approximately five pounds of pressure- has this ever lead to severe swelling? Not that I have seen.

How can we use this knowledge to improve our present skills? Is there a benefit to high flowing embalming? High flow results in de-saturation of tissue. In addition to distribution benefits, Jaundice cases, edema cases or even standard cases can greatly benefit of high flow embalming. Flushing bilirubin out is key for achieving a well preserved "un-green" jaundice case. Drawing moisture into the vascular system for removal will improve preservation of edematous tissue. Finally, drawing any water from any case will delay decomposition.

To make you a bit more comfortable injecting with a 'high rate of flow' with centrifugal embalming machines, here is a quick how to which probably doesn't require you to buy anything.
Make two incisions, one at the right clavicle site other at the left bra strap site.
From the left bra strap site incise and insert forceps in the subclavian vein and left jugular vein. 
From the site at the right clavicle incise and insert forceps into the right jugular vein.
Inject south via the carotid artery with pressure setting below 1 lb.
Remember what we know about gravity feed, as fluid flows and returns drainage turn the 'rate of flow' by 1/5.
As drainage continues to increases, continue opening the valve until it is completely open.
From that point raise the pressure carefully until you have achieved the desired results, you will not be disappointed.  

Whats your pressure number?

Thursday, November 29, 2018

Sunday, November 25, 2018

→ Embalming Methodology- Old School

For our purposes we are calling this embalming technique, "Old School".  For those embalmers who know it, the name is out of respect for those still using it.  With respect for the the veterans of the profession, some young embalmers have learned why this old trick should never be forgotten.

The method is simple really, this is one of my personal favorites for apparent difficult cases (cases you'd expect to raise more than one vessel). Make a selection of an artery.  Be sure NOT to rupture any vessels in the process. If one should break, take care to use a locking forcep to restrict drainage. Incise the artery and insert a cannula, my preference is to utilize a Director Cannula to obtain access to the aorta.  This is helpful to reduce the possibility of post embalming swelling.

Estimate the deceased total body weight and take note.  Begin to inject without drainage the total body weight in ounces (you most likely will not need to inject the entire solution). For this method to work well, your pressure setting must be high (at least greater than 20) and it is wise to heavily restrict your rate of flow (trickle treat folks).  Take notice of the superficial vessels as an indication of fluid distribution.  Continue injection so long as swelling does not occur and until adequate firmness is achieved.  Massage during and after injection and apply warm water over the deceased (this accelerates the firming effects, heat provides ATP for the RXN).  Adequate and thorough aspiration following injection is very important as this will serve as the only means to remove blood from the body.

For best results consider handling these cases with a higher index solution or even waterless. For waterless cases, consider using the Pressure Pump Injector. This hand pump permits high pressure injection with ease-one bottle at a time-with trigger control.

This high pressure style embalming method we call "Old School" more than makes up for its distribution limitations with exceptional diffusion (high to low-low to high concentration). Embalming text supports heavily drainage being overated, we won't agree entirely.  We acknowledge the importance of drainage to achieve a lifelike appearance.  With that being said "Old School" remains as a tried and tested approach every embalmer can count on. 

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

→ Distribution - Physical Science & Embalming

There are a seemingly endless amount of combinations of mixtures and solutions an embalmer might create per case. For our purposes of discussing fluid dynamics, please consider water being mixed with your favorite arterial solution. This fluid is now capable of entering the human body and preserving it for a finite amount of time.
What is most significant about our solution is that it must make contact with the area we intend to preserve. For it to affect and preserve tissue, it must be able to reach, saturate, and act upon the tissue. Perhaps the first greatest adversity for the embalmer is reaching the area. Secondly, has enough fluid arrived to saturate the tissue without distortion? And lastly, has enough time elapsed before the fluid leaving for it to reach its full preservation potential?
So how does it get there? Embalmers commonly advise on their methodology: “high pressure and low rate of flow,” “low pressure and low rate of flow”—it seems there might be enough combinations to make someone’s head explode. Let’s for now agree to revisit those concepts at a later time, but remember it is very significant.
For our purposes now, we will be using the “Mortuary Magic Hand”. We can restrict flow enough that it slowly enters the hand. Once we see fluid draining, if we stop drainage then we are now pressurizing the tissue in the hand. As per our flow restriction, as time goes on the tissues of the hand will become more and more saturated in the areas we have distributed fluid. This fluid will not necessarily reach all of the areas of the hand we might have intended. If we were to start and stop drainage, we might see it distribute more thoroughly. If you already know why this is, great job. If you don’t, please consider or try and visualize why.
Consider another method commonly employed by embalmers: concurrent drainage. This time, we will inject the hand and not restrict drainage in any way. In fact, while fluid begins to escape freely, we will decrease the restriction of injection flow. This will increase the displacement of fluid into the hand, where it will enter at a rate faster than it can escape. This method will also saturate the tissue, but you might notice that distribution of fluid will happen on its own.
In our next chapter, we will begin to address why this is.
-The Mortuary Scientist